Puliakulam/Pulikulam Cattle (Tamil breed: cow/bull)
Breeding status: Conservation
Home or breeding tract: Pulikulam cattle Maintained as migratory herds in Madurai, Sivagangai and Virudhunagar districts of Tamil Nadu.
Accession number of this breed: ‘01 Pulikulam Tamilnadu INDIA_CATTLE_1800_ PULIKULAM_03035.’
Body: Strong and active with the packed body and short legs.
Body colour: Pulikulam cows are generally grey or white in colour and The Pulikulam Bulls are dark grey.
Markings over body: White markings can be spotted in the forehead, limb and tail.
Forehead: Prominent, Fore Head is broad and has a groove at centre in Pulikulam breed.
Ears: Small, pointed
Shoulder hump: Big and dark
Penis sheath flap: Very small
Horns: Extend Curved outward, upward, backwards and then inward, ending with sharp pointed tips spaced wide apart
Production traits: Pulikulam cows are Poor milkers as like most of the Tamil Indigenous cattle breed (Ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 kg per day).
Ability as draught purpose: This cattle playing a significant role in the rural livelihood of communities rearing them for draught and organic agricultural production especially of spices.
Anything else: This pulikulam cattle population is famous for a local game Jallikattu.
Other Names: Palingu madu, Kilakattu madu, Mani madu, Jallikattu madu and Mattu madu.
“Pulikulam is a village located in Sivaganga which was part of the erstwhile composite Ramanathapuram district”
local myth says that the village got its name Puli Kulam (Tiger Pond) because the village some five hundred years ago was surrounded by thick forest consisting Karuvelam (Acacia Nilotica) trees and tigers used to come and quench their thirst in the pond.
The bulls here in the village are believed to be so raging that they would fight the Tigers before going down.
“Ninety-nine per cent of the cattle is bred and maintained by the traditional cowherds belonging to Yadava caste and remaining one per cent is maintained by members of Mukkulathor caste.”
Source: The Hindu.
Puliakulam Herd & Herders Video
Konar livestock keepers travelling with her pulikulam herd of over 1000 cattle from Aruppukottai to Perungudi /Near Madurai Airport area. They sell dung to traders in local market and Kerala for organic farming.
Video Source: Komakkambedu Himakiran Anugula
Pulikulam cattle herd in Sirumalai Southern foothills
Video Source: Yuvasenthil Ramalingam
Sakkimangalam Pulikulam Cattle Pen:
This pulikulam breed is semi-domesticated and penned cattle will attack without warning. They are not harnessed with nose ropes and the only way to hold them is to embrace their hump, and that’s how the sport started.
Video Source: Komakkambedu Himakiran Anugula
We are currently searching for additional photographs and information on this breed. If you have materials which we could borrow or if you know of a potential source please contact us using the comment form below.
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