The Tamil speaking country was ruled by different dynasties during the Sangam Age. The political history of these dynasties can be traced from the literary references”Purananuru“(Tamil: புறநானூறு).

The Purananuru is a source of information on the political and social history of prehistoric Tamil Nadu. There is information on the various rulers who ruled the Tamil country before and during the Sangam era.

  • Chera Nadu or Konga/Kongu Nadu
  • Chola Nadu
  • Pandya Nadu
  • Tondai Nadu/Tondaimandalam  Etc..

1. Chera Nadu or Konga/Kongu Nadu (Tamil:சேரநாடு)

The Flag of Chera (Tamil: சேரநாட்டு கொடி)

The kingdom of the Chera dynasty comprised the modern Western Tamil Nadu and Kerala, Together with Chola and Pandya, they are one of the three major dynasties in Tamil speaking regions.

Based on the climatic conditions and agricultural status, each country has their own breed suited their eco conditions.

Geographic location : Chera dynasty

  • EastYercaud and Kollimalai mountains.
  • WestVellingiri hills, Walayar, Anaiamalai mountains
  • NorthThe Nilgiris Mountain ranges
  • SouthKodaikkanal mountains, Sirumalai mountains

Cattle breeds:

  1. Kangayam (Mee Konga, Mekattu madu)    /click to read more
  2. Tiruchengodu (Mazha Konga, Kikattu madu)
  3. Bargur (Semmarai, Malayan)   /click to read more
  4. Palamalai
  5. Alambadi    /click to read more
  6. Kollimalai – Seravaroyan hill cattle

kangayam Bull : Kangayam(Mee Konga, Mekattu madu)


kangayam Cow : Kangayam(Mee Konga, Mekattu madu)

2. Chola Nadu (Tamil: சோழநாடு)

The Flag of Chola (Tamil: சோழர் கொடி)

Chola dynasty : Geographic location

Cattle Breeds:

1.Vadakarai (Soliya Vadakarai)

2.Manapparai (Konadan)

3.Umbalachery (Mottai cattle,Tanjore polled cattle)    /click to read more

3. Pandya Nadu (Tamil:பாண்டிய நாடு)

The Flag of Pandiya’s (Tamil: பாண்டிய நாட்டு கொடி)

Pandya Nadu dynasty ruled their county  from their capital Korkai later shifted to madurai, 

Pandya dynasty : Geographic location

Cattle Breed:


2.Pulikulam (Jallikattu)    /click to read more

3.Thambiran madu

4.Tenpandi (Tirunelveli)


4. Tondai Nadu/Tondaimandalam: (Tamil: தொண்டைநாடு)

The Flag of Tondai Nadu (Tamil: தொண்டைநாட்டு கொடி)

Thondai mandalam region covers the north most part of Tamil Nadu. This includes districts which formed a part of the traditional Pallava kingdom. The boundaries of Tondai mandalam include Chennai, Tiruvallur, Vellore, Kanchipuram, Tiruvannamalai and the northern part of Viluppuram district in Tondai mandalam, and group the southern part of Viluppuram District, the Union Territory of Pondicherry and Cuddalore District under a separate region called “Nadu Naadu”in Tondai mandalam. A larger Tondai mandalam include all of these. Also, The Tondai mandalam region extend to cover Chittoor and Nellore districts which is now in Andhra Pradesh.

Thondai mandalam dynasty : Geographic location

Cattle Breed :

1. Tondainadu

2 Turinjithalai

3. Punganur    /click to read more

Punganur Cattle Breed


source:: Wiki



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